Today I was at my internship, where I makes things for stop motion sets. I decided to make a list of the materials I've used and a short description so I know for my own purposes.
Silicone GI 1000- Molding material. Mix with 12% catalysis by weight. Mix together with power drill mix, then de-gas in a vacuum chamber at 80 psi.
Smooth Cast 300- Hard plastic casting material. Mix two equal parts by weight. When casting in a silicone mold with this you "break the surface tension" to make sure that you don't get air bubbles. You do this by pouring some of Smooth Cast in and then either pushing your finger, wearing a glove, into the mold and rubbing all the interior sides of the mold so that the material is pushed against the side, or by using a stick, if the area is too small for a finger. It sets up by changing from a clear liquid to a white, hard plastic. Side note, when stirring don't stir to fast, the heat will cause it to set quicker.
Magic Sculpt- Like plumbers epoxy only you have about 3 hours of working time, not 5-10 min. Good for sculpting and letting sit to harden. I used it for the hair in my characters for "A Plan for the New Tomorrow."
Oomoo 25- A simple silicone mold material that doesn't need to be degassed. 1 to 1 by volume mix ratio.
Chavant P40 Sculpting Clay- Shavant is the brand, P40 is the type. This is the clay that I would have liked to use to sculpt, I'm very interested in it. You need to heat it up to sculpt with it and when it cools to room temperature it's hardish.
Flex Foam (5 and 10, also 10 is called "X")- This is a casting material that grows to either 5 time or 10 times its volume, respectively. The difference is in the density of the foam when done, 5 is denser than 10. Also, it's sticky as all hell when it's expanding. Used for many things, including a filler for a latex-skinned puppet.
Rigid Foam- Another type of cold foam. Works the same damn way except it aint flexible ya twad.
There's obviously a ton more materials that I have used, but these are the ones with the names I can't ever remember.